ANTICHRESIS


ANTICHRESIS
ANTICHRESIS (ἁντίχρησις) in Greco-Roman law an arrangement whereby a creditor may, under certain conditions, enjoy the use and fruits of property (land or chattels) given to him as security. In talmudic literature, such an arrangement appears under various designations such as mashkanta di-Sura, nakhyata, kiẓuta (see loans , pledge , property , usury ), while the word antichresis (אנטיכרסיס) itself appears only once in the Talmud (TJ BM 6:7, 11a; another passage in TJ Git. 4:6, 46a has אנטריס which might be a corruption of antichresis (אנטיכרסיס) – see epstein , in: Tarbiz, 8 (1937), 316–8). In Greco-Roman sources too, though antichretic transactions must have been widespread, the word antichresis appears only rarely, and it is difficult to ascertain its exact meaning. The glossator Cujacius (Observations 3:35) restricts the term to an arrangement whereby the usufruct is in lieu of interest (in vicem usurarum). A. Manigk, rejecting this narrow definition, argues that in Roman, Assyro-Babylonian, Greco-Egyptian, Syrian, and other laws, arrangements whereby usufruct was granted in partial or total amortization of the principal debt were also included in antichresis: hence Manigk speaks of "amortization-antichresis" as distinct from "interest-antichresis" (F. Stier-Somlo and A. Elster (eds.), Handwoerterbuch der Rechtswissenschaft, 1 (1926), S.V.). By allowing a token deduction from a principal debt, actual interest-antichresis can be made to appear as amortization-antichresis (which is what mashkanta di-Sura or nakhyata really were). This was a means of evading the prohibition of usury. It is thus difficult to say whether the terse statement in the Talmud, which explicitly denounces antichresis as usury, refers to pure interest-antichresis or also to amortization-antichresis of the fictitious kind. The Mishnah discussing it deals with loans on pledge and quotes a saying of Abba Saul allowing amortization-antichresis under certain circumstances ("a poor man's pledge"). In Christian countries in the Middle Ages, when all interest on loans was forbidden, antichresis was linked with the evasion of usury (see C.F. Glueck, Ausfuerliche Erlaeuterung der Pandecten, 14 (1813), 47 ff.). Economically justified interest rates having become permissible, the significance of antichresis faded away and is not found in modern legislation. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Gulak, Toledot ha-Mishpat be-Yisra'el bi-Tekufat ha-Talmud, 1 (1939); Ha-Ḥiyyuv ve-Shi'bbudav, 72, 76, 80, 121, 152; B. Cohen, in: Alexander Marx Jubilee Volume (1950), 179–202, reprinted in his Jewish and Roman Law, 2 (1966), 433–56, addenda 784–5; Ehrman, in: Sinai, 54 (1963/64), 177–84. (Arnost Zvi Ehrman)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Antichresis — Antichresis, in civil law, is a contract whereby a person borrowing money of another, hands over his property to the creditor, allowing the use and occupation thereof, for the interest on the money lent.Historically, this contract was used by the …   Wikipedia

  • antichresis — an·ti·chre·sis /ˌan ti krē sis, ˌan ˌtī , ˌan tē / n [New Latin, from Greek, from anti opposite + chrēsis use, from chrēsthai to use, need] in the civil law of Louisiana: a written pledge and transfer from a debtor to a creditor of possession of… …   Law dictionary

  • Antichrēsis — (Antichretĭcum, gr.), Pfandnutzung, s. u. Hypothek. Davon Antichretisch, pfandnutzungsweise, so Antichretischer Vertrag, Vertrag, wonach der Pfandgläubiger die Nutzung des gegebenen Pfandes als Zinsen bezieht, s. Hypothek …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • antichresis — /aentakriyzas/ In the civil law, a species of mortgage, or pledge of immovables. An agreement by which the debtor gives to the creditor the income from the property which he has pledged, in lieu of the interest on his debt. In the French law, if… …   Black's law dictionary

  • antichresis — an·ti·chre·sis …   English syllables

  • antichresis —   n. (pl. ses ) possession and enjoyment of mortgaged property by mortgagee in lieu of interest payments …   Dictionary of difficult words

  • antichresis — A pledge of immovable property, comparable to a mortgage. 41 Am J1st Pldg & Col § 2; 36 Am J1st Mtg § 12 …   Ballentine's law dictionary

  • antichresis — …   Useful english dictionary

  • Roman Law —     Roman Law     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Roman Law     In the following article this subject is briefly treated under the two heads of; I. Principles; II. History. Of these two divisions, I is subdivided into: A. Persons; B. Things; C. Actions …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • antichrèse — [ ɑ̃tikrɛz ] n. f. • 1603; lat. jurid. d o. gr. antichresis ♦ Dr. civ. Contrat par lequel un débiteur transfère à son créancier la possession de son immeuble, pour en percevoir fruits et revenus jusqu au remboursement de sa dette. ⇒ nantissement …   Encyclopédie Universelle


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.